Retail Disruption

Brick-and-mortar retailers that only distribute and don't manufacture are being disrupted by convenient, low price online retailers with low cost structures. This is impacting a big swath of the retail industry.

Traditional retailers are protected -- to some extent -- when the distributed product is something consumers want to try on or touch before buying. Even then, however, sales of "try on" products are impacted by e-commerce: after a buyer makes the first purchase of a try on product at a physical store, he can make repeat purchases online.

Brick-and-mortar retailers trying to bolster sales through an online presence must compete with Amazon. And the difficulty here is that Amazon has the competitive advantages afforded by massive scale, a low cost structure, and a huge selection of products. By selling almost everything, Amazon provides one-stop convenience that other online retailers can't match. This convenience edge has been strengthened by Amazon Prime. So traditional retailers face daunting challenges when trying to compete online.

Retailers manufacturing unique products that they also sell -- like Apple -- are largely protected from Amazon. That's because these retailer-manufacturers can control distribution and/or distribute their products exclusively.

Looking beyond retail, other industries are experiencing widespread dislocation, often due to new technologies rather than Christensen-style low end or new market disruption. The oil industry is becoming less profitable due to EV's, abundant natural gas, and cheaper and cheaper solar/wind alternatives.

If a disruptive force doesn't swallow the entire industry market, then a disrupted company can try and adjust to reduced market share by downsizing. An unleveraged balance sheet makes downsizing easier and survival more likely. In the case of retail, many brick-and-mortar companies will survive -- particularly the companies that manufacture what they sell or sell products that people want to try on first -- but their sales may be lower.